Explorando incentivos y reticencias a la implementación del teletrabajo en las pequeñas empresas

(Exploring incentives and reticences to implement telework in small companies)

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.35295/osls.iisl.1781

Keywords:

Implementación del teletrabajo, Trabajo en remoto, Actitudes de los directivos, Habilidades de gestión de equipos, Cultura organizativa, Telework implementation, Remote work, Managers’ attitudes, e-team skills, Organizational culture

Abstract

Tras la pandemia de COVID-19, el teletrabajo se encuentra en proceso de consolidación como modalidad de trabajo en remoto que afecta a una amplia diversidad de empresas y actividades productivas. Sin embargo, su grado de penetración es sensiblemente inferior entre las empresas de menor dimensión. Poca atención ha merecido hasta el momento el estudio de las actitudes y motivaciones de los propietarios y equipos directivos de las pequeñas empresas en relación con el impulso a las nuevas formas de organización del trabajo que surgen del proceso de transformación digital de las empresas. Esta investigación pretende mitigar esta carencia mediante un análisis empírico basado en una encuesta realizada a una muestra de directivos de PYME europeas. Los resultados obtenidos aportan luz sobre cuál es la influencia de la cultura organizativa, de la competencia adquirida en la gestión de equipos mediante el uso de tecnologías digitales y  de las percepciones subjetivas de utilidad en la decisión de implementar el teletrabajo en las pequeñas empresas. Permite conocer también cuáles son los elementos más determinantes del proceso de transformación en la organización del trabajo en el seno de las PYME europeas. Los resultados obtenidos, considerando la existencia de un marco regulatorio incipiente de las formas de trabajo flexibles, tienen implicaciones prácticas para las estratégicas de formación en la empresa y las políticas para el fomento del teletrabajo en las empresas de menor dimensión.

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, a significant share of workers has been involved in some form of telework. Remote work arrangements are currently affecting a wide range of firms and industries. However, its usage is significantly lower among small and medium companies. So far, the study of the attitudes and motivations of business owners and managers of small companies for promoting this new modality of work organization has been poorly addressed. This research aims to reduce this shortage by implementing an empirical analysis based on a sample of managers in small and medium-sized (SMEs) European companies. Our findings reveal the critical influence of organizational culture, the achievement of competencies related to the capacity of team building using digital tools and the subjective perceptions of usefulness on the decision to implement telework. It also provides insight into the most important determinant factors for reshaping work organization in European SMEs. Considering the incipient regulatory framework for flexible work arrangements, the results have practical implications for in-company training strategies and the policies to foster telework implementation in SMEs.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

        Metrics

Views 133
Downloads:
13(6)_Llados-Masllorens_et_al_OSLS 121
XML_13(6)_Llad´ós-Masllorens_et_al_OSLS 4


Author Biographies

Josep Lladós-Masllorens, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC)

jlladosm@uoc.edu

Estudios de Economía y Empresa

Universitat Oberta Catalunya (UOC)

Antoni Meseguer-Artola, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC)

ameseguer@uoc.edu

Estudios de Economía y Empresa

Universitat Oberta Catalunya (UOC)

Eva Rimbau-Gilabert, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC)

erimbau@uoc.edu

Estudios de Economía y Empresa

Universitat Oberta Catalunya (UOC)

Mar Sabadell-Bosch, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC)

msabadell@uoc.edu

Estudios de Economía y Empresa

Universitat Oberta Catalunya (UOC)

References

Ajzen, I., y Fishbein, M., 2005. The Influence of Attitudes on Behavior. En: D. Albarracín, B.T., Johnson y M.P. Zanna, eds., Handbook of attitudes and attitude change: Basic principles. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Athanasiadou, C., y Theriou, G., 2021. Telework: systematic literature review and future research agenda. Heliyon, 7(10).

Azzolari, D., et al., 2021. A casa tutto bene? Le condizioni fisiche e psicologiche dei lavoratori in smart. En: M. Peruzzi y D. Sacchetto, eds., Il lavoro da remoto al tempo della pandemia. Turín: Giappichelli.

Baruch, Y., 2000. Teleworking: benefits and pitfalls as perceived by professionals and managers. New Technology, Work and Employment, 15(1), 34–49.

Beauregard, T.A., Basile, K.A., y Canónico, E., 2019. Telework: outcomes and facilitators for employees. En: R.N. Landers, ed., The Cambridge Handbook of Technology and Employee Behavior. Cambridge University Press, 511–543.

Bélanger, F., Watson-Manheim, M.B., y Swan, B.R., 2013. A multi-level socio-technical systems telecommuting framework. Behaviour & Information Technology, 32(12), 1257–1279.

Benitez, J., et al., 2020. How to perform and report an impactful analysis using partial least squares: guidelines for confirmatory and explanatory IS research. Information & Management [en línea], 57, 103168. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2019.05.003

Bezzina, F., et al., 2021. Surviving the Pandemic: Remote Working in the Maltese Public Service during the Covid-19 Outbreak. Frontiers in Sustainability [en línea], vol. 2, 644710. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.3389/frsus.2021.644710

Bloom, N., Han, R., y Liang, J., 2022. How Hybrid Working From Home Works Out. National Bureau of Economic Research. NBER Working Paper [en línea], 30292. Disponible en: http://www.nber.org/papers/w30292

Bosua, R., et al., 2013. Telework, productivity and wellbeing: An Australian perspective. Telecommunications Journal of Australia, 63(1), 11.1–11.12.

Bosua, R., et al., 2018. Telework Impact on Productivity and Well-Being. An Australian Study. En: J. Choudrie, S. Kurnia y P. Tsatsou, eds., Social Inclusion and Usability of ICT-enabled Services. Londres: Routledge.

Braun, I., y Schill, A., 1999. Experiences with Regional Teleworking Support for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. 1st European Regional Telematics Conference, Tanum, June 1999.

Chung, H., 2022. The flexibility paradox: Why flexible working leads to (self-) exploitation. Bristol University Press.

Clear, F., y Dickson, K., 2005. Teleworking practice in small and medium‐sized firms: management style and worker autonomy. New Technology, Work and Employment, 20(3), 218–233.

Crandall, W., y Gao, L., 2005. An update on telecommuting: Review and prospects for emerging issues: Quarterly journal. S.A.M. Advanced Management Journal, 70(3), 30–37.

Da Silva, R.C., y Naranjo-Zolotov, M., 2022. Business not as usual: Understanding the drivers of employees’ tacit knowledge sharing behavior in a teleworking environment. Madrid: 17th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies, 22–25 junio.

Dahlstrom, T.R., 2013. Telecommuting and Leadership Style. Public Personnel Management, 42(3), 438–451.

Davis, F.D., 1989. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319–340.

Fishbein, M., y Ajzen, I., 1975. Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behaviour: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading: Addison-Wesley.

Forgacs, T., 2010. Empirical research findings on telework: Management experiences and attitudes. Business and Economic Horizons, 1(1), 6–13.

Gibson, J.W., et al., 2002. Telecommuting in the 21st Century: Benefits, Issues, and a Leadership Model Which Will Work. Journal of Leadership Studies, 8(4), 75–86.

Golden, T.D., 2006. Avoiding depletion in virtual work: Telework and the intervening impact of work exhaustion on commitment and turnover intentions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(1), 176–187.

Golden, T.D., Veiga, J.F., y Dino, R.N., 2008. The impact of professional isolation on teleworker job performance and turnover intentions: does time spent teleworking, interacting face-to-face, or having access to communication-enhancing technology matter? Journal of Applied Psychology [en línea], 93(6), 1412–21. Disponible en: https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/a0012722

González-González, I., Martínez-Ruiz, M.P., y Clemente-Almendros, J.A., 2022. Does employee management influence the continued use of telework after the COVID-19 pandemic?. Small Business International Review, 6(2), e537.

Greer, T.W., y Payne, S.C., 2014. Overcoming Telework Challenges: Outcomes of Successful Telework Strategies. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 17(2), 87–111.

Groen, B.A.C., et al., 2018. Managing flexible work arrangements: Teleworking and output controls. European Management Journal, 36(6), 727–735.

Illegems, V., y Verbeke, A., 2004. Telework: What Does it Mean for Management? Long Range Planning, 37(4), 319–334.

Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE), 2022. Encuesta sobre el uso de TIC y comercio electrónico en las empresas [en línea]. Disponible en: https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/es/operacion.htm?c=estadistica_C&cid=1254736176743&menu=ultiDatos&idp=1254735576799

Junça Silva, A., y Coelho, N., 2022. The moderating role of organizational culture on the relationship between workers’ attitudes towards telework and happiness. Kybernetes, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.

Kazekami, S., 2020. Mechanisms to improve labor productivity by performing telework. Telecommunications Policy, 44(2).

Kowalski, K.B., y Swanson, J.A., 2005. Critical success factors in developing teleworking programs. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 12(3), 236–249.

Lang, G., y Hofer-Fischanger, K., 2022. Factors associated with the implementation of health-promoting telework from the perspective of company decision makers after the first COVID-19 lockdown. Journal of Public Health, 30, 373–2387.

Langa, G.Z., y Conradie, D.P., 2003. Perceptions and attitudes with regard to teleworking among public sector officials in Pretoria: applying the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Communicatio, 29(1 & 2), 280–296.

Lee, H., 2021. Changes in workplace practices during the COVID-19 pandemic: the roles of emotion, psychological safety and organisation support. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 8(1), 97–128.

Manochehri, G., y Pinkerton, T., 2003. Managing telecommuters: Opportunities and challenges. American Business Review, 21(1), 9–16.

Mello, J.A., 2007. Managing Telework Programs Effectively. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 19, 247–261.

Meroño-Cerdán, A.L., 2017. Perceived benefits of and barriers to the adoption of teleworking: peculiarities of Spanish family firms. Behaviour & Information Technology, 36(1), 63–74.

Morrison, J., Chigona, W., y Malanga, D.F., 2019. Factors that Influence Information Technology Workers’ Intention to Telework. A South African Perspective. Proceedings of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists, 32, 1–10.

Neirotti, P., Paolucci, E., y Raguseo, E., 2013. Mapping the antecedents of telework diffusion: firm-level evidence from Italy. New Technology, Work and Employment, 28(1), 16–36.

Oakman, J., et al., 2020. A rapid review of mental and physical health effects of working at home: How do we optimise health? BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1825.

Ollo-Lopez, R., Goñi-Legaz, S., y Erro-Garcés, A., 2021. Home-based telework: usefulness and facilitators. International Journal of Manpower, 42(4), 644–660.

Park, S., y Cho, Y.J., 2022. Does telework status affect the behavior and perception of supervisors? Examining task behavior and perception in the telework context. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 33(7), 1326–1351.

Pavlou, P.A., Liang, H., y Xue, Y., 2007. Understanding and mitigating uncertainty in online exchange relationships: a principal-agent perspective. MIS Quarterly [en línea], 31(1), 105–136. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.2307/25148783

Pearlson, K.E., y Saunders, C.S., 2001. There’s No Place like Home: Managing Telecommuting Paradoxes. The Academy of Management Executive, 15(2), 117–128.

Pérez, M.P., et al., 2004. A technology acceptance model of innovation adoption: the case of teleworking. European Journal of Innovation Management, 7(4), 280–291.

Pérez, M.P., Sánchez, A.M., y De Luis Carnicer, M.P., 2002. Benefits and barriers of telework: perception differences of human resources managers according to company’s operations strategy. Technovation, 22(12), 775–783.

Peters, P., y Heusinkveld, S., 2010. Institutional explanations for managers’ attitudes towards telehomeworking. Human Relations, 63(1), 107–135.

Podsakoff, P.M., et al., 2003. Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.

Powell, G.N., y Mainiero, L.A., 1999. Managerial decision making regarding alternative work arrangements. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72(1), 41–56.

Pyöriä, P., 2011. Managing telework: risks, fears and rules. Management Research Review, 34(4), 386–399.

Raghuram, S., Wiesenfeld, B., y Garud, R., 2003. Technology enabled work: The role of self-efficacy in determining telecommuter adjustment and structuring behaviour. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(2), 180–198.

Rodríguez-Ardura, I., y Meseguer-Artola, A., 2020. Editorial: How to Prevent, Detect and Control Common Method Variance in Electronic Commerce Research. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 15(2), i–v.

Rondan-Cataluña, F.J., Arenas-Gaitán, J., y Ramírez-Correa, P.E., 2015. A comparison of the different versions of popular technology acceptance models: A non-linear perspective. Kybernetes, 44(5), 788–805.

Sanz de Miguel, P., et al., 2020. Industrial democracy in Europe: A quantitative approach. Labour & Industry, 30(2), 101–132.

Sewell, G., y Taskin, L., 2015. Out of Sight, Out of Mind in a New World of Work? Autonomy, Control, and Spatiotemporal Scaling in Telework. Organization Studies, 36(11), 1507–1529.

Silva, A., Montoya, I.A., y Valencia, J.A., 2019. The attitude of managers toward telework, why is it so difficult to adopt it in organizations?. Technology in Society, 59(C), 101133.

Sostero, M., et al., 2020. Teleworkability and the COVID-19 crisis: A new digital divide? JRC working papers series on labour, education and technology. 23 de julio. Comisión Europea.

Stout, M.S., Awad, G., y Guzmán, M., 2013. Exploring Managers’ Attitudes toward Work/Family Programs in the Private Sector. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 16(3), 176–195.

Van Wart, M., et al., 2019. Operationalizing the definition of e-leadership: identifying the elements of e-leadership. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 85(1), 80–97.

Vargas Llave, O., et al., 2022. The rise in telework: Impact on working conditions and regulations. Eurofound. 8 de diciembre. Luxemburgo: Oficina de Publicaciones de la Unión Europea.

Venkatesh, V., 2000. Determinants of perceived ease of use: Integrating perceived behavioural control, computer anxiety and enjoyment into the technology acceptance model. Information Systems Research, 11(4), 342–365.

Venkatesh, V., y Bala, H., 2008. Technology acceptance model 3 and a research agenda on interventions. Decision Sciences, 39(2), 273–315.

Venkatesh, V., y Davis, F.D., 2000. A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: four longitudinal field studies. Management Science, 46(2), 186–204.

Visser, J., 2009. The quality of industrial relations and the Lisbon Strategy. In: European Commission, ed., Industrial relations in Europe 2008. Luxemburgo: Oficina de Publicaciones de la Unión Europea, 45–73.

Vrchota, J., Maříková, M., y Řehoř, P., 2020. Teleworking in SMEs before the onset of coronavirus infection in the Czech Republic. Management: Journal of Contemporary Management Issues, 25(2), 151–164.

Published

01-12-2023

How to Cite

Lladós-Masllorens, J., Meseguer-Artola, A., Rimbau-Gilabert, E. and Sabadell-Bosch, M. (2023) “Explorando incentivos y reticencias a la implementación del teletrabajo en las pequeñas empresas: (Exploring incentives and reticences to implement telework in small companies)”, Oñati Socio-Legal Series, 13(6), pp. 1876–1902. doi: 10.35295/osls.iisl.1781.