Criminalization of Social Protest: Future research


  • Carolijn Terwindt European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights


future research, criminalization, decision-making, natural resources, social protest, social movements


This Special Issue of the Oñati Socio-Legal Series is dedicated to an exploration of particular features of and analytical approaches to the criminalization of social protest about natural resources. This epiloguehighlights four areas for future research: (1) the definition and use of the term ‘criminalization of social protest’and the development of an analytical apparatus; (2) patterns, typologies, and legal strategies of criminalization; (3) the embeddednessof processes of criminalization in the broader political decision-making procedures about natural resources;(4) counter-strategies. In the description of these areas, the author draws on the papers in this Special Issue and the collective reflection during the Workshop in 2012.

Este número especial de la Oñati Socio-Legal Series busca explorar elementos particulares y métodos de análisis para la comprensión de la criminalización de la protesta social originada por la disputa de recursos naturales. Este epílogo destaca cuatro áreas para futuras investigaciones: (1) Definición y uso del término “criminalización de la protesta social” y desarrollo de sus respectivos marcos de análisis. (2) Patrones, tipologías y estrategias jurídicas de criminalización. (3) Inscripción de los procesos de criminalización dentro de un marco político más amplio que aborde la toma de decisiones en torno a los recursos naturales. (4) Contra estrategias. En la descripción de estas áreas, la autora hace referencia a los artículos de este número especial y a la reflexión colectiva generada durante el workshop celebrado en 2012.


Author Biography

Carolijn Terwindt, European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights

After graduating in law and anthropology, Carolijn Terwindt wrote her doctoral dissertation Ethnographies of Contentious Criminalization at Columbia Law School, New York City. During this time, she worked as a lecturer and researcher in Utrecht, Amsterdam, and Freiburg and her work was published in a variety of journals, including Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, Development in Practice, and Crime, Law, and Social Change. She further was involved in a research project doing fieldwork in the Philippines and Indonesiaon the pressures on NGOsand how grassroots organizations try to defend and reclaim their space (Van der Borgh and Terwindt,Political Pressures on NGOs in Partial Democracies, Palgrave Macmillan, forthcoming in 2014). Currently, Terwindt is a legal advisor at the European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights in Berlin, where she works in the Business and Human Rights Program




How to Cite

Terwindt, C. (2014) “Criminalization of Social Protest: Future research”, Oñati Socio-Legal Series, 4(1), pp. 161–169. Available at: (Accessed: 29 November 2021).