Do you practice what (E)U preach?

The EU system of cross-border protection for victims of recurrent crimes

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.35295/osls.iisl.1984

Keywords:

Victim’s rights, intimate partner violence, protection orders, access to justice, judicial cooperation

Abstract

Victims of recurrent crimes, particularly Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) victims, encounter unique challenges with the criminal justice system. The risk of repeat violence and retaliation deters them from engaging with legal processes, emphasising the critical need for effective protection measures in domestic and cross-border contexts. Protection orders, pivotal in preventing further victimisation, primarily operate within the issuing State, which has prompted the European Union to establish legal instruments based on the principle of mutual recognition to extend their applicability beyond national borders. Despite this, these measures are strikingly underused. This article delves into the root causes of this underutilisation and questions the overall usability of these measures by its beneficiaries. It also explores potential legal and non-legal solutions to transform them into a tangible resource for victims of recurring crimes across the EU.

 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

        Metrics

Views 139
Downloads:
14(3)_Amato_OSLS 96
XML_14(3)_Amato_OSLS 0


Author Biography

Rosanna Amato, IGSG-CNR

Rosanna Amato, Institute on Legal Informatics and Judicial Systems of the National Research Council of Italy IGSG-CNR, Via Zamboni 26, 40126, Bologna (Italy). Email: rosanna.amato@cnr.it

References

Amato, R., and Carnevali, D., 2022. The Calm After the Storm? The Tricky Path to Restoring the Enjoyment of Individual Rights in Intimate Partner Violence Cases. Oñati Socio-Legal Series [online], 12(3), 443-477. Available at: https://doi.org/10.35295/osls.iisl/0000-0000-0000-1272 DOI: https://doi.org/10.35295/osls.iisl/0000-0000-0000-1272

Amato, R., and Dallara, C., 2018. Le Reti giudiziarie nello Spazio di Libertà Sicurezza e Giustizia. In: C. Guarnieri, G. Insolera and L. Zilletti, eds., Giurisdizioni europee e sistemi nazionali. Rome: Carocci, 27-54.

Amato, R., and Velicogna, M., 2020. Encoding Cross-Border Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters: Current Practices and the Rise of the EU E-Justice Infrastructure. In: C. Billet and A. Turmo, eds., Coopération opérationnelle en droit pénal de l’Union européenne. Brussels: Bruylant, 189-218.

Amato, R., Carnevali, D., and Contini, F., 2020. Violenza di genere e domestica nella fase di emergenza COVID-19: Un’esplorazione della risposta di giustizia attraverso il dialogo istituzionale. IGSG-CNR Report commissioned by the Italian Ministry of Justice.

Artinopoulou, V., Koufouli, A., and Michael, I., 2018. Towards a victim-centered police response. Training Manual, PROTASIS – Polis Training Skills (JUST/2015/RDAP/AG/VICT/9318) [online]. September. Athens: European Public Law Organization. Available at: http://www.eurocrime.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/PROTASIS_Training-Manual.pdf

Bard, M., and Sangrey, D., 1986. The crime victim’s book. 2nd ed. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Belluta, H., and Ceresa Gastaldo, M., eds., 2016. L’ordine europeo di protezione La tutela delle vittime come motore della cooperazione giudiziaria. Turin: Giappichelli.

Ben Miloud, D., and Nicolau, C., 2023. e-Evidence Digital Exchange System (eEDES). In: M.A. Biasiotti and F. Turchi, eds., European Investigation Order. Cham: Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-31686-9_7

Bogdan, M., 2015. Some Reflections on the Scope and Application of the EU Regulation No 606/2013 on Mutual Recognition of Protection Measures in Civil Matters. Yearbook of Private International Law [online], vol. 16, 405-410. Available at: https://doi.org/10.9785/9783504384784-016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.9785/9783504384784-016

Borges Blázquez, R., 2020. European Judicial Cooperation and Protection of Gender-Based Violence Victims, Fact or Fiction? Journal of Penal Law and Criminology [online], 8(1), 95-115. Available at: https://doi.org/10.26650/JPLC2020-0007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.26650/JPLC2020-0007

Canepa, A., 2006. La progressiva “retificazione” dell’Unione europea: il caso del settore giustizia. Diritto pubblico comparato ed europeo, 2006(3), 1033-1061.

Canepa, A., 2008. La rete quale “forma-organizzazione” del settore della giustizia europea. In: P. Bilancia and L. Ammannati, eds., Governance dell’economia e integrazione europea. Governance multilivello regolazione reti. Milan: Giuffré, 299-320.

Canivet, G., 2004. Les réseaux de juges au sein de l’Union européenne: raisons, nécessités et realizations. Petites Affiches (LPA), n. 199, 45-52.

Carboni, N., and Velicogna, M., 2011. Electronic data exchange within European Justice: e-CODEX challenges, threats and opportunities. International Journal of Computer Applications [online], vol. 4. Available at: https://doi.org/10.18352/ijca.90 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18352/ijca.90

Cerrato, E., et al., 2017. European Protection Order, European Implementation Assessment [online]. EPRS Study. Brussels. Available at: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2017/603272/EPRS_STU(2017)603272_EN.pdf

Claes, M., and De Visser, M., 2012. Are you networked yet? On dialogues in European Judicial Networks. Utrecht Law Review [online], 8(2), 100-114. Available at: https://doi.org/10.18352/ulr.197 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18352/ulr.197

Claes, M., and De Visser, M., 2013. Courts United? On European Judicial Networks. In: B. de Witte and A. Vauchez, eds., Lawyering Europe. European law as a transnational social field. Oxford/Portland: Hart, 75-100.

Dallara, C., and Piana, D., 2015. Networking the Rule of Law. How change agents reshape judicial governance in the EU [online]. London: Ashgate/Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315597812 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315597812

De Vido, S., 2017. The Ratification of the Council of Europe Istanbul Convention by the EU: A Step Forward in the Protection of Women from Violence in the European Legal System. European Journal of Legal Studies [online], (9)2, 69–102. Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/1814/46069

De Vido, S., and Sosa, L., 2021. Criminalisation of gender-based violence against women in European States, including ICT-facilitated violence [online]. Special Report. Directorate-General for Justice and Consumers, 124-134. Available at: https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/25712c44-4da1-11ec-91ac-01aa75ed71a1

Del Pozo-Triviño, M., and Toledano-Buendía, C., 2016. Training interpreters to work with foreign gender violence victims in police, and court settings. Language and Law/Linguagem e Direito [online], 3(2), 192-203. Available at: https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/LLLD/article/view/1760

Diamante, A., 2016. La Direttiva 2012/29/UE che istituisce norme minime in materia di diritti, assistenza e protezione delle vittime di reato. Origini, ratio, principi e contenuti della Direttiva recepita dal D.Lgs. 212/2015. Giurisprudenza penale [online], vol. 3. Available at: https://www.giurisprudenzapenale.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Direttiva-vittima_Diamante_GP.pdf

Dutta A., 2016. Cross-border protection measures in the European Union. Journal of Private International Law [online], 12(1), 169-184. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/17441048.2016.1143689 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17441048.2016.1143689

Etxebarria Estankona, K., 2019. La protección de las víctimas de violencia de género en la Unión Europea. Especial referencia al reconocimiento mutuo de medidas de protección en materia civil. Revista Brasileira de Direito Processual Penal [online], 5(2), pp. 961-998. Available at: https://doi.org/10.22197/rbdpp.v5i2.239 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22197/rbdpp.v5i2.239

Freixes, T., and Román, L., eds., 2014. Protection of the gender-based violence victims in the European Union. Preliminary study of the Directive 2011/99/EU on the European protection order [online]. Publicacions Universitat Rovira i Virgili/Publicacions Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281555933_Protection_of_the_Gender-Based_Violence_Victims_in_the_European_Union DOI: https://doi.org/10.17345/9788484243335

Freixes, T., and Román, L., eds., 2015. The European Protection Order: Its application to the victims of gender violence [online]. Madrid: Tecnos, pp 34 ss. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281555482_The_European_Protection_Order_Its_Application_to_the_Victims_of_Gender_Violence

Ivankovic, A., et al., 2019. Victim Support Europe, Project VOCIARE: Victims of Crime Implementation Analysis of Rights in Europe – Synthesis Report [online]. Available at: https://victim-support.eu/wp-content/files_mf/1564677465VOCIARE_Synthesis_Reportweb.pdf

Janoff-Bulman, R., 1985. The aftermath of victimization: Rebuilding shattered assumptions. In: C.R. Figley, ed., Trauma and Its Wake. Volume I: The Study and Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder [online]. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 15-35. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/med:psych/9780195119343.003.0014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/med:psych/9780195119343.003.0014

Johnson, H., Ollus, N., and Nevala, S., 2008. Violence against women: An international perspective. Cham: Springer.

Jones, J., 2018. The European System: Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) and The Council of Europe Convention on Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (Istanbul Convention). In: R. Manjoo and J. Jones, eds., Legal Protection of Women from Violence [online]. London: Routledge. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315185002-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315185002-6

Keilitz, S., ed., 1997. Civil POs: The Benefits and Limitations for Victims of Domestic Violence [online]. Research report. Williamsburg: National Center for State Courts. Available at: https://www.ojp.gov/sites/g/files/xyckuh241/files/media/document/172223.pdf

Klein, A., 2008. Practical Implications of Current Domestic Violence Research, Part II: Prosecution. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, United States of America.

Klimek, L., 2016. European Protection Order in criminal matters versus European Protection Order in civil matters. The Review of European Law, Economics and Politics [online], vol. 1, 170-183. Available at: https://caes.upol.cz/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Klimek-ES-2016.pdf

Klimek, L., 2017. European Protection Order (Mutual Recognition of Protection Orders). In: L. Klimek, Mutual Recognition of Judicial Decisions in European Criminal Law [online]. Cham: Springer, 461-496. Available at: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-44377-5_12 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44377-5_12

Lamont, R., 2013. Beating domestic violence? Assessing the EU’s contribution to tackling violence against women. Common Market Law Review [online], 50(6), 1787–1807. Available at: https://doi.org/10.54648/COLA2013166 DOI: https://doi.org/10.54648/COLA2013166

Laxminarayan, M.S., 2012. The heterogeneity of crime victims: Variations in procedural and outcome preferences [online]. Oisterwijk: Wolf Legal. Available at: https://pure.uvt.nl/ws/portalfiles/portal/1458201/Laxminarayan_heterogeneity_19-11-2012_emb_t#page=58

Lonati, S., 2018. Is the European Protection Order Sufficiently Robust to Prevent any Discrimination among Victims Moving Across the European Union? An Assessment of the First Seven Years. European Criminal Law Review [online], 8(3/2018), 313–439. Available at: https://doi.org/10.5771/2193-5505-2018-3-332 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5771/2193-5505-2018-3-332

Long, J., Mallios, C., and Murphy, S., 2010. Model Policy for Prosecutors and Judges on Imposing, Modifying and Lifting Criminal No Contact Orders. The Battered Women’s Justice Project [online]. Washington, DC: Aequitas. Available at: https://aequitasresource.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Model-Policy-for-Prosecutors-and-Judges-on-Imposing-Modifying-and-Lifting-Criminal-No-Contact-Orders.pdf

Luparìa, L., 2014. Vittime dei reati e diritto all’assistenza linguistica. In: C. Falbo and M. Viezzi, eds., Traduzione e interpretazione per la società e le istituzioni. EUT - Edizioni Università di Trieste, 97-104.

Mitsilegas, V., 2016. EU Criminal Law after Lisbon: Rights, Trust and the Transformation of Justice in Europe. Oxford: Hart.

Oubiña Barbolla, S., 2011. La Orden Europea De Protección: realidad o ilusión. In: R. Castillejo Manzanares, ed., Violencia de género, justicia restaurativa y mediación. Madrid: Wolters Kluwer España, 263-302.

Pavlou, S., and Shakos, A., 2020. ARTEMIS: Promoting the right of protection of women through the application of the Directive 2011/99/EU and the European Protection Order, D36 – Final Research Report, Ref. Ares(2020)6694668 - 13/11/2020 [online], pp. 23 ss. Available at: https://www.artemis-europa.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/D36-ARTEMIS..-FINAL-COMPARATIVE-REPORT.pdf

Pecorella, C., and Farina, P., 2018. La risposta penale alla violenza domestica: un’indagine sulla prassi del Tribunale di Milano in materia di maltrattamenti contro familiari e conviventi (art. 572 c.p.). Diritto Penale Contemporaneo [online], vol. 2, 190–208. Available at: https://archiviodpc.dirittopenaleuomo.org/d/5963-la-risposta-penale-alla-violenza-domestica-un-indagine-sulla-prassi-del-tribunale-di-milano-in-mate

Römkens, R., 2010. Legal protective provisions or POs. Document prepared for the Ad Hoc Committee on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence (CAHVIO) [online]. 21 May. Available at https://rm.coe.int/1680593fcc

Rusu, I., 2016. Issuance and transmission of the European Protection Order in the European Union. Critical opinions. De lege ferenda proposals. Perspectives of Business Law Journal, 5(1), 214-219.

Sellier, E., and Weyembergh, A., 2018. Criminal procedural laws across the European Union – A comparative analysis of selected main differences and the impact they have over the development of EU legislation [online]. Study. Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs. Available at: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/document/IPOL_STU(2018)604977

Soleto Muñoz, H., and Oubiña Barbolla, S., eds., 2022. Reformulando el tratamiento procesal de las víctimas de violencia sexual en procesos penales [online]. Madrid: Dykinson. Available at: https://e-archivo.uc3m.es/rest/api/core/bitstreams/129cbca7-bb5c-4048-a45b-63ed1c80028d/content

Spurek, S., 2016. An analysis of the Victims’ Rights Directive from a gender perspective [online]. Report. Vilnius: European Institute for Gender Equality. Available at: https://eige.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/mh0115698enn_0.pdf

Stubbs, J., 2008. Domestic violence and women’s safety: Feminist challenges to restorative justice. Legal Studies Research Paper [online], n. 08/16. Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1084680

van der Aa, S., 2012. Protection Orders in the European Member States: Where Do We Stand and Where Do We Go from Here? European Journal of Criminal Policy [online], vol. 18, 183–204. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10610-011-9167-6; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10610-011-9167-6

van der Aa, S., 2014. The right to protection. In: Superior Council of Magistracy of Romania, Strengthening judicial cooperation to protect victims of crime: Handbook (JUST/2012/JPEN/AG/294) [online]. Superior Council of Magistracy of Romania, pp. 112-127. Available at: https://pure.uvt.nl/ws/portalfiles/portal/7505615/Project_Handbook_final.pdf.

van der Aa, S., and Ouwerkerk, J.W., 2011. The European Protection Order: No time to waste or a waste of time? European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice [online], 19(4), 267-287. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1163/157181711X587774 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/157181711X587774

van der Aa, S., et al., 2015. Mapping the legislation and assessing the impact of POs in the European Member States. Oisterwijk: Wolf Legal.

van der Aa, S., et al., 2016. Challenges to the European Protection Order: mutual recognition in the light of different national protection. In: H. Belluta and M. Ceresa Gastaldo, eds., 2016. L’ordine europeo di protezione La tutela delle vittime come motore della cooperazione giudiziaria. Turin: Giappichelli, 3–20.

Velicogna, M., 2014. Coming to Terms with Complexity Overload in Transborder e-Justice: The e-CODEX Platform. In: F. Contini and G.F. Lanzara, eds., The circulation of agency in E-Justice [online]. Dordrecht: Springer, 309-330. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7525-1_13 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7525-1_13

Velicogna, M., and Lupo, G., 2017. From drafting common rules to implementing electronic European Civil Procedures: the rise of eCODEX. In: H. Burkhard and X. Kramer, eds., From common rules to best practices in European Civil Procedure [online]. Baden-Baden: Nomos/Hart, 181-212. Available at: https://doi.org/10.5771/9783845285214-181 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5771/9783845285214-181

Wahl, T., 2020. Commission: Directive on European Protection Order Underused in Practice. Eucrim [online], 14 August. Available at: https://eucrim.eu/news/commission-directive-european-protection-order-underused-practice/

Published

03-06-2024

How to Cite

Amato, R. (2024) “Do you practice what (E)U preach? : The EU system of cross-border protection for victims of recurrent crimes”, Oñati Socio-Legal Series, 14(3), pp. 786–816. doi: 10.35295/osls.iisl.1984.