Access to justice research: On the way to a broader perspective




Access to justice, literature review, legal aid, democracy, law and society, acceso a la justicia, revisión de la literatura, ayuda jurídica, democracia, derecho y sociedad


In this paper a baseline of contemporary access to justice research is established. The baseline clearly illustrates key features of the research field suggesting that while the field of research has become more multifaceted in the course of the last two or three decades, it is nevertheless very much dominated by law scholarship and structural analysis of legal service provision. Departing from this overview of access to justice research as of today, five calls for future research on access to justice explicated in the reviewed literature is presented and discussed. I argue that future research on access to justice should: 1) Reach a clearer understanding of the problem (of access to justice), 2) consider a multidisciplinary approach, 3) support and develop evidence-based policy by committing to empirical research, 4) study a wider variety of social realities and 5) look for quality. The reasonings of this paper are based on a scoping literature review.

En este documento se establece una línea de base de la investigación contemporánea sobre el acceso a la justicia. La línea de base ilustra claramente las características clave del campo de investigación, sugiriendo que, aunque el campo de investigación se ha vuelto más polifacético en el curso de las últimas dos o tres décadas, sigue estando muy dominado por los estudios de derecho y el análisis estructural de la prestación de servicios jurídicos. Partiendo de esta visión general de la investigación sobre el acceso a la justicia en la actualidad, se presentan y discuten cinco peticiones de investigación futura sobre el acceso a la justicia explicadas en la literatura revisada. Sostengo que las futuras investigaciones sobre el acceso a la justicia deberían 1) alcanzar una comprensión más clara del problema (del acceso a la justicia), 2) considerar un enfoque multidisciplinar, 3) apoyar y desarrollar una política basada en pruebas comprometiéndose con la investigación empírica, 4) estudiar una mayor variedad de realidades sociales y 5) buscar la calidad. Los razonamientos de este documento se basan en una revisión bibliográfica de alcance.

Available from:


Author Biography

Asbjørn Storgaard, The School of Social Work, Lund University

PhD student of social work at Lund University. Email address:


Abazi, V., and Eckes, C., 2018. Closed evidence in EU courts: Security, secrets and access to justice. Common Market Law Review, 55(3), 753–82.

Adebayo, A.A., and Ugowe, A.O., 2019. Access to Justice through Legal Aid in Nigeria: An Exposition on Some Salient Features of the Legal Aid Act. Brawijaya Law Journal [online], 6(2), 141–56. Available at:

Afriana, A., and Fakhirah, E.L., 2016. A fast procedure as an access to justice in order to realize a simple, fast, and low cost principle in Indonesia. Jurnal Dinamika Hukum [online], 16(1), 99–105. Available at:

Agbiboa, D.E., 2015. “Policing Is Not Work: It Is Stealing by Force”: Corrupt Policing and Related Abuses in Everyday Nigeria. Africa Today, 62(2), 94–126.

Akter, F., 2016. Towards a Comprehensive Legal Aid System in Bangladesh: The Need for Early Access to Legal Aid in Criminal Proceedings. Asian Journal of Criminology, 11(2), 65–82.

Akter, F., 2017. Legal Aid for Ensuring Access to Justice in Bangladesh: A Paradox? Asian Journal of Law and Society, 4(1), 1–19.

Albiston, C.R., and Sandefur, R.L., 2013. Expanding the empirical study of access to justice, Wisconsin Law Review, 1, 101–120.

Andaryuni, L., 2018. The Program of Circuit Isbat Nikah as the Embodiment of Access to Justice in Indonesia. Mazahib [online], 17. Available at:

Aprile, J., 2016. Limited license legal technicians: non-lawyers get access on the legal profession, but clients won‘t get access to justice. Seattle University Law Review [online], 40, 217. Available at:

Arfaoui, K., and Moghadam, V.M., 2016. Violence against women and Tunisian feminism: Advocacy, policy, and politics in an Arab context. Current Sociology, 64(4), 637–53.

Bajpai, A., 2016. Learning by Doing: Promoting Access to Justice to the Marginalized and Vulnerable Groups in India. Asian Journal of Legal Education, 3(2), 201–08.

Barbera, M., and Protopapa, V., 2020. Access to Justice and Legal Clinics: Developing a Reflective Lawyering Space Some Insights from the Italian Experience. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 27(1), 249–71.

Barnett, H.M., 2017. Chief Judge Kaye‘s Legacy of Innovation and Access to Justice. New York University Law Review [online], 92(1), 6. Available at:

Bates, E., Bond, J., and Wiseman, D., 2016. Troubling signs: mapping access to justice in Canada‘s refugee system reform. Ottawa Law Review [online], 47, 39. Available at:

Benjamin, B., 2019. Accredited representatives and the non-citizen access to justice crisis: Informational Interviews with Californian Recognized Organizations to Better Understand the Work and Role of Non-Lawyer Accredited Representatives. Stanford Law & Policy Review [online], 30(1), 263–306. Available at:

Beyani, C., 2013. Protection of the right to seek and obtain asylum under the African human rights system. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff.

Bilson, B., Lowenberger, B., and Sharp, G., 2018. Reducing the “justice gap” through access to legal information: Establihsing access to justice entry points at public libraries. Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice [online], 34(2), 99–128. Available at:

Bond, J., and Wiseman, D., 2020. Imperfect Evidence and Uncertain Justice: An Exploratory Study of Access to Justice Issues in Canada‘s Asylum System. University of British Columbia Law Review [online], 53, 1–52. Available at:

Bonilla Maldonado, D., 2020. The Right to Access to Justice: Its Conceptual Architecture. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies [online], 27(1), 15–33. Available at:

Bradley, T., and Gruber, J., 2018. VAWG mainstreaming in access to justice programmes: a framework for action. Development in Practice, 28(1), 16–32.

Brinks, D.M., 2019. Access to What? Legal Agency and Access to Justice for Indigenous Peoples in Latin America. Journal of Development Studies [online], 55(3), 348–65. Available at:

Brown, P., 2016. Justice for all... who can afford it: use of excessive fees, fines and bail results in unequal access to justice for the poor. ABA Journal [online], 102, 8. Available at:


Burridge, A., and Gill, N., 2017. Conveyor-Belt Justice: Precarity, Access to Justice, and Uneven Geographies of Legal Aid in UK Asylum Appeals. Antipode, 49(1), 23–42.

Buryi, V., 2018. Pravo na dostup do pravosuddya yak odna z peredumov zabezpechennya inshyx prav i svobod lyudyny. NaUKMA research papers [online], 1, 25–28. Available at:

Cappelletti, M., 1978. Access to justice. Milan: Giuffrè/Alphen aan den Rijn: Sijthoff/Noordhoff.

Carrington, K., et al., 2020. How Women‘s Police Stations Empower Women, Widen Access to Justice and Prevent Gender Violence. International Journal for Crime, Justice & Social Democracy [online], 9(1), 42–67. Available at:

Clarke, A., Williams, J., and Wydall, S., 2015. Access to Justice for Victims/Survivors of Elder Abuse: A Qualitative Study. Social Policy and Society, 15(2), 1–14.

Cole, A.A., and Flaherty, M., 2016. Access to justice looking for a constitutional home: implications for the administrative legal system. Canadian Bar Review [online], 94, 13. Available at:

Cortés, P., 2011. Online dispute resolution for consumers in the European Union Abingdon: Routledge.

Cortes, P., 2018. Using Technology and ADR Methods to Enhance Access to Justice. International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, 5, 103–21.

Cox, P., and Godfrey, B., 2019. Editors‘ Introduction: “Access to Justice: Historical Approaches to Victims of Crime”. Societies [online], 9(4), 73–73. Available at:

Crawford, C., 2020. Access to Justice for Collective and Diffuse Rights: Theoretical Challenges and Opportunities for Social Contract Theory. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies [online], 27(1), 59–86. Available at:

Crawford, C., and Bonilla Maldonado, D., 2020. Introduction: Access to Justice: Theory and Practice from a Comparative Perspective. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies [online], 27(1), 1–2. Available at:

Cremin, K.M., 2016. What does access to justice require? Overcoming barriers to invoke the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Frontiers of Law in China, 11(2), 280–322.

Creutzfeldt, N., 2016. Regulating Dispute Resolution. ADR and Access to Justice at the Crossroads. Ed. by Felix Steffek and Hannes Unberath in coop. with Hazel Genn, Reinhard Greger and Carrie Menkel-Meadow. Oxford u.a. 2013. Rabels Zeitschrift fuer auslaendisches und internationales Privatrecht, 80(3), 709–12.

Curran, L.S., 2017. Lawyer Secondary Consultations: improving access to justice and human rights: reaching clients otherwise excluded through professional support in a multi-disciplinary practice. Journal of Social Inclusion [online], 8(1), 46–77. Available at:

Currie, A., 2009. The legal problems of everyday life. In: R.L. Sandefur, ed., Access to Justice. Bingley: Emerald.

Dadhich, S., 2016. Old dog, new tricks: Fighting corruption in the African natural resource space with the Money Laundering Control Act. American Journal of Criminal Law, 44(1), 71.

Davis, L.W., and Isaacson, S.A., 2017. Ensuring Equal Access to Justice for Limited English Proficiency Individuals. The Judges‘ Journal, 56, 21.

Davis, V.B., 2019. What Can Technology Do to Increase Access to Justice? University of Miami Law Review [online], 73(2), 433–42. Available at:

De Souza, S.P., 2016. Evaluating “Access to Justice” in Informal Justice Systems: A Suggestive Framework. Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law Online, 19, 469–504.

Donaldson, R.M., 2018. Law by Non-Lawyers: The Limit to Limited License Legal Technicians Increasing Access to Justice. Seattle University Law Review [online], 42(1), 1–86. Available at:

Dupuy, P.M., Francioni, F., and Petersmann, E.U., eds., 2009. Human rights in international investment law and arbitration. Oxford University Press.

Durojaye, E., Mirugi-Mukundi, G., and Adeniyi, O., 2020. Legal Empowerment as a Tool for Engendering Access to Justice in South Africa. International Journal of Discrimination and the Law, 20(4), 224–44.

Eijkman, Q.A.M., 2018. Access to Justice for Communications Surveillance and Interception: Scrutinising Intelligence-Gathering Reform Legislation. Utrecht Law Review [online], 14(1), 116–27. Available at:

Elder, B.C., and Schwartz, M.A., 2018. Effective Deaf Access to Justice. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education [online], 23(4), 331–40. Available at:

Elliott, I., Kivlahan, C., and Rahhal, Y., 2020. Bridging the Gap Between the Reality of Male Sexual Violence and Access to Justice and Accountability. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 18(2), 469–98.

Erugo, S., 2016. Legal Assistance by Clinical Law Students: A Nigerian Experience in Increasing Access to Justice for the Unrepresented. Asian Journal of Legal Education, 3(2), 160–73.

Finger, D., 2014. 50 years after the “War on Poverty”: evaluating the justice gap in the post-disaster context. Boston College Journal of Law and Social Justice [online], 34(2), 267. Available at:

Fitz-Gibbon, K., and Pfitzner, N., 2021. Ensuring Access to Justice for Women Experiencing Family Violence beyond the Pandemic. Alternative Law Journal, 46(1), 3–4.

Fornasier, M.O., and Schwede, M.A., 2021. As plataformas de solução de litígios online (ODR) e a sua relação com o direito fundamental ao acesso à justiça. Revista Eletrônica de Direito Processual [online], 22(1), 568–98. Available at:

Francioni, F., 1997. An international Bill of Rights: Why it matters, how it can be used. Texas International Law Journal, 32, 471.

Francioni, F., 2001. International law as a common language for national courts. Texas International Law Journal, 36, 587.

Francioni, F., 2007. Access to justice as a human right. New York: Oxford University Press.

Francioni, F., 2009. Access to Justice, Denial of Justice and International Investment Law. European Journal of International Law [online], 20(3), 729–47. Available at:

Francioni, F., 2016. Access to Justice and Its Pitfalls : Reparation for War Crimes and the Italian Constitutional Court. Journal of International Criminal Justice, 14(3), 629–36.

Gao, R., 2021. Bridging an Access-to-Justice Gap for International Commercial Dispute Resolution: Recent Developments of Interim Measures in Cross-Border Chinese Arbitration. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law [online], 59, 608–84. Available at:

Gill, C., and Creutzfeldt, N., 2018. Access to justice for vulnerable and energy-poor consumers in the European energy market. Journal of Law & Society, 45, 7–7.

Glover, G.J., 2016. Online legal service platforms and the path to access to justice. Florida Bar Journal, 90(1), 88.

Gonzalez, R.A., 2020. Statement from the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges Regarding Safe Courts and Access to Justice During COVID‐19. Juvenile & Family Court Journal, 71(3), 89–90.

Goodwin, I.J., 2016. Access to justice: what to do about the law of wills. Wisconsin Law Review [online], 5, 947. Available at:

Grant, M.J., and Booth, A., 2009. A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 26(2), 91–108.

Greiner, D.J., 2019. The New Legal Empiricism & Its Application to Access-to-Justice Inquiries. Daedalus [online], 148(1), 64–74. Available at:

Guedes, C.R.S., et al., 2018. Plain access to justice and the orthodontist‘s activity in Brazil: vulnerability in the professional practice in the face of risks of malpractice lawsuits. Dental press journal of orthodontics, 23(4), 88–93.

Gurmessa, A.F., 2018. The Role of University-Based Legal Aid Centers in Ensuring Access to Justice in Ethiopia. Beijing Law Review [online], 9, 357–80. Available at:

Hadfield, G.K., and Rhode, D.L., 2016. How to regulate legal services to promote access, innovation, and the quality of lawyering. Hastings Law Journal [online], 67(5), 1191. Available at:

Harwood, R., 2016. Can International Human Rights Law Help Restore Access to Justice for Disabled Workers? Laws [online], 5(2), 17. Available at:

Hatıpoğlu-Aydın, D., and Aydın, M.B., 2016. The gender of justice system: Women‘s access to justice in Turkey. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 47, 71–84.

Hawkins, D., 2016. Wisconsin Equal Access to Justice Act – Fees. Wisconsin Law Journal [online]. Available at:

He, M., 2019. Sustainable Development through the Right to Access to Justice in Environmental Matters in China. Sustainability [online], 11(3), 900–00. Available at:

Heffernan, L., 2018. Access to Justice as a Threshold Concept. Nottingham Law Journal, 27(2), 8–16.

Hertogh, M., 2012. Mind the (new) gap: a selective survey of current law and society research in the Netherlands. International Journal of Law in Context [online], 8(1), 137. Available at:

Higgins, T.Q., 2018. Bridging the Gap: Providing “Access to Justice” for Middle-Market Litigants. Suffolk University Law Review [online], 51(2), 289–308. Available at:

Hill, F.P., and Dalla Bernardina de Pinho, H., 2017. The new border of access to justice: The transnational jurisdiction and the mechanisms of international judicial cooporation in Brazilian Civil Procedure Code of 2015. Revista Eletrônica de Direito Processual [online], 18(2), 261–96. Available at:

Hubbard, T., et al., 2020. Getting to the Bottom of the Access-to-Justice Gap. Utah Bar Journal, 33(6), 15–19.

Idris, M.F., 2021. Access to Justice for Disability in the Perspective of John Rawls Theory (Case of Demak Regecy Indonesia). Journal of Law and Legal Reform [online], 2(3), 391–400. Available at:

Jassal, N., 2020. Gender, Law Enforcement, and Access to Justice: Evidence from All-Women Police Stations in India. American Political Science Review [online], 114(4), 1035–54. Available at:

Jean‐Louis, S., 2021. I Don‘t Know What I‘m Doing: Using Limited License Legal Technicians in Family Court to Improve Access to Justice. Family Court Review, 59(3), 599–611.

Jiukoski da Silva, S., Peteffi da Silva, R., and Stersi dos Santos, R.S., 2020. A mediação e a conciliação como instrumentos de acesso à justiça e a sua perspectiva a partir do código de processo civil: o contraponto entre a cultura da sentença e a cultura do consenso. Revista Eletrônica de Direito Processual [online], 21, 392–415. Available at:

Jordan, E.R., 2016. What we know and need to know about immigrant access to justice. South Carolina Law Review [online], 67(2), 295. Available at:

Karageorgou, V., and Pouikli, K., 2021. Access to Justice for Challenging the Decisions of the Competent Authorities for Alleged Violations of the EU Water Legislation before National Courts. Relevant Developments and Trends Through the Lens of the CJEU Judgments in Cases C-197/18 and C-535/18. European Energy & Environmental Law Review, 30(4), 128–38.

Karayanni, M.M., 2014. Conflicts in a conflict: A conflict of laws case study on Israel and the Palestinian territories. Oxford University Press.

Kennedy, D., 2012. African poverty. Washington Law Review [online], 87(1), 205. Available at:

Krakhmalova, K., 2019. Internally Displaced Persons in Pursuit for Access to Justice: Ukraine. International Migration, 57(5), 309–22.

Krämer, L., 2019. Climate Change, Human Rights and Access to Justice. Journal for European Environmental & Planning Law, 16, 21–34.

Leitch, J.A., 2013. Looking for quality: the empirical debate in access to justice research. Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice [online], 31(2), 229–255. Available at:

Letschert, R.M., Pemberton, A., and Staiger, I., 2010. Assisting victims of terrorism: Towards a European standard of justice. Dordrecht: Springer.

Li, Y., 2016. From “Access to Justice” to “Barrier to Justice”?: An Empirical Examination of Chinese Court-Annexed Mediation. Asian Journal of Law and Society, 3(2), 377–97.

Liefaard, T., 2019. Access to Justice for Children: Towards a Specific Research and Implementation Agenda. International Journal of Children‘s Rights [online], 27(2), 195–227. Available at:

Listiningrum, P., 2019. Transboundary Civil Litigation for Victims of Southeast Asian Haze Pollution: Access to Justice and the Non-Discrimination Principle. Transnational Environmental Law [online], 8(1), 119–42. Available at:

Liu, J., 2016. Asian Paradigm Theory and Access to Justice. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 32(3), 205–24.

Lund, H., Juhl, C., and Christensen, R., 2016. Systematic reviews and research waste. Lancet, 2016 Jan 9;387(10014), 123–4.

Ma, L., et al., 2016. National Survey of Tribunal Responsiveness to Self-Represented Parties – Measuring Access to Justice for Canadian Administrative Tribunals. Canadian Journal of Administrative Law & Practice, 29, 165.

MacDonald, R., 2001. Access to justice and law reform #2. Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice, 19, 317–326.

Marques de Medeiros Neto, E., and Nunes, J.R., 2019. A importância da mediação para o acesso à justiça: uma análise à luz do CPC/20151. Revista Eletrônica de Direito Processual [online], 20(2), 159–88. Available at:

Marsden, S., and Buhler, S., 2018. Lawyer competencies for access to justice: Two empirical cases. Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice [online], 34(2), 186–208. Available at:

Mayanja, J., 2016. Of remedies, access to justice, the enforcement of private law and judicial efficiency: the need for a damages claims grouping procedure in all Australian jurisdictions. Australian Bar Review, 43, 347.

McNeil, A., 2019. Are We All in This Together: Exploring the Impact of Austerity on Access to Justice for Women. UCL Journal of Law and Jurisprudence [online], 8(2), 5–32. Available at:

Meçe, M., 2016. Access to justice system as an effective enjoyment of human rights: challenges faced by Roma minority in Albania. Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, 8(1), 215.

Meene, I., and Rooij, B., 2008. Access to justice and legal empowerment: Making the poor central in legal development co-operation. Leiden University Press.

Mmbali, O., 2016. Structural silence, exclusion, and access to justice: A case study of an indegenous girl in northern Kenya. Journal of Community Positive Practices, 16, 85.

Mogapaesi, T., 2019. Sexual harassment in the workplace and women’s access to justice: lessons for Botswana from a South African perspective. Commonwealth Law Bulletin, 45(3), 431–53.

Molavi, M., 2020. Access to Justice and the Limits of Environmental Class Actions in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Law & Society, 35(3), 391–412.

Moss, M.A., 2016. Can technology bridge the justice gap? Florida Bar Journal [online], 90(1), 83. Available at:

Moyo, A., 2018. Standing, Access to Justice and the Rule of Law in Zimbabwe. African Human Rights Law Journal [online], 18, 266–92. Available at:

Murayama, M., 2009. Expanding access to lawyers: The role of legal advice centers. In: R.L. Sandefur, ed., Access to Justice. Bingley: Emerald.

Naznin Shuvra, A., 2021. Women’s Right to Access to Justice: The Role of Public Interest Litigation in Bangladesh. Australian Journal of Asian Law [online], 21(2), 99–117. Available at:

Neiman, R., 2016. Down but not out! How law school students can help bridge the small claims court access to justice gap. Buffalo Public Interest Law Journal [online], 35(1), 119. Available at:

Niyonkuru, A.P., 2021. Gender and access to justice in Burundi: conflicting norms, gaps in the law and the role of judges. Legal Pluralism & Critical Social Analysis [online], 53(3), 1–23. Available at:

Nolan-Haley, J., 2020. Achieving access to justice through adr: fact or fiction? Fordham Law Review [online], 88(6), 2111–19. Available at:

Noone, M.A., and Ojelabi, L.A., 2020. Alternative dispute resolution and access to justice in Australia. International Journal of Law in Context [online], 16(2), 108–27. Available at:

Novakovic, N., 2016. Access to Justice: Reducing the Implicit Pushback Burden on Working-Class Pro Se Plaintiffs in Employment Law Cases. California law review, 104(2), 545.

O‘Nions, H., 2020. “Fat cat” lawyers and “illegal” migrants: the impact of intersecting hostilities and toxic narratives on access to justice. Journal of Social Welfare & Family Law, 42(3), 319–40.

O’Rourke, C., 2016. Advocating Abortion Rights in Northern Ireland: Local and Global Tensions. Social & Legal Studies, 25(6), 716–40.

Ojelabi, L.A., 2016. An access to justice approach to mediation and the construction of positive legal professional identity. International Journal of the Legal Profession, 23(3), 321–45.

Ojelabi, L.A., and Gutman, J., 2020. ‘Family dispute resolution and access to justice in Australia’, International Journal of Law in Context, 16, 197–215.

Onuora-Oguno, A., 2018. Leaving the Woods to See the Trees: Locating and Refocusing the Activities of Non-State Actors towards the Effective Promotion of Access to Justice of Persons with Disabilities. African Disability Rights Yearbook [online], 6, 121–38. Available at:

Paré, M., and Chong, T., 2017. Human rights violations and Canadian mining companies: exploring access to justice in relation to children’s rights. The International Journal of Human Rights, 21(7), 908.

Penal Reform International and Bluhm Legal Clinic of the Northwestern University School of Law, 2007. Access to justice in Africa and beyond: Making the rule of law a reality. Chicago: Penal Reform International.

Reasoner, H., 2016. Finding new ways to give access to justice to those who cannot afford lawyers. Texas Bar Journal, 79, 366.

Rhode, D.L., 1996. Meet needs with nonlawyers. ABA Journal, 82(January), 104.

Rhode, D.L., 2004a. Access to justice. Oxford University Press.

Rhode, D.L., 2004b. Access to justice: Connecting principles to practice. Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics, 17, 369.

Rhode, D.L., 2009. Whatever happened to access to justice? Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review [online], 42(4), 869. Available at:

Rhode, D.L., 2013. Access to Justice: An Agenda for Legal Education and Research. Journal of Legal Education [online], 62(4), 531–50. Available at:

Rhode, D.L., 2014. Access to justice: a roadmap for reform. Fordham Urban Law Journal [online], 41(4), 1227. Available at:

Rickett, C.E.F., and Telfer, T.G.W., eds., 2003. International perspectives on consumers’ access to justice. Cambridge University Press.

Roberson, Q., 2020. Access to justice as a human right, organizational entitlement and precursor to diversity and inclusion. Equality, Diversity & Inclusion, 39, 787–91.

Salem, P., and Saini, M., 2017. A Survey of Beliefs and Priorities About Access to Justice of Family Law: The Search for A Multidisciplinary Perspective. Family Court Review, 55(1), 120–38.

Sandefur, R.L., 2009. Access to justice: Classical approaches and new directions. In: R.L. Sandefur, ed., Access to justice. Bingley: Emerald.

Sandefur, R.L., 2015. Bridging the gap: rethinking outreach for greater access to justice. University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review [online], 37(4), 721. Available at:

Schneider, C.D., 2017. Another Bridge Across the Access to Justice Gap: LII’s Virtual Reference Desk. Legal Reference Services Quarterly, 36(2), 85.

Sigafoos, J., and Organ, J., 2021. “‘What about the poor people’s rights?” The dismantling of social citizenship through access to justice and welfare reform policy. Journal of Law & Society, 48(3), 362–85.

Silverman, S.J., and Molnar, P., 2016. Everyday Injustices: Barriers to Access to Justice for Immigration Detainees in Canada. Refugee Survey Quarterly, 35(1), 109–27.

Storgaard, A., 2020. Prison Leave in Denmark: How a Tradition of Combining Rehabilitation with Discipline Developed into Putting Access to Justice at Risk. European Journal on Criminal Policy & Research, 26(2), 213–29.

Sukaryavichute, E., and Prytherch, D.L., 2018. Transit planning, access, and justice: Evolving visions of bus rapid transit and the Chicago street. Journal of Transport Geography, 69, 58–72.

Thomas, C., and Trachtman, J.P., 2009. Developing countries in the WTO legal system. Oxford University Press.

Thomas, K., 2021. Access to Justice for the Chinese Consumer: Handling Consumer Disputes in Contemporary China. China Quarterly, 2021, 622–23.

Todaro, E., 2016. More work to do: Tennessee is a leader in access to justice innovations, yet the work is not finished. Tennessee Bar Journal, 52(1), 12–19.

Tuck Leong, O.Y., 2018. Access to Justice and Innovative Court Solutions for Litigants-in-Person: The Singapore Experience. International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, 5, 9–17.

Ullah, A., 2018. Public Interest Litigation: A Constitutional Regime to Access to Justice in Pakistan. Pakistan Vision [online], 19(2), 1–15. Available at:

Wallat, K.S., 2019. Reconceptualizing access to justice. Marquette Law Review [online], 103(2), 581–626. Available at:

Wing, L., 2018. Artificial Intelligence and Online Dispute Resolution System Design: Lack of/Access to Justice Magnified. International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution, 4(2), 16–20.

Woodbur, M., 2020. Response to Narrowing the Access-to-Justice Gap by Reimagining Regulation. Utah Bar Journal, 33, 30–35.

Woodrum, H., 2017. The Older Americans Act: access to justice for those over 60 in Nevada. Nevada Lawyer [online], 25, 22. Available at:

Wulandari, C., 2018. Access to Justice for the Disability Women as Victims in the Criminal Justice System. SHS Web of Conferences [online], 54, 07012–12. Available at:

Yuthayotin, S., 2015. Access to Justice in Transnational B2C E-Commerce: A Multidimensional Analysis of Consumer Protection Mechanisms. Cham: Springer International.

Zhou, L., 2020. Access to Justice in Higher Education: The Student as Consumer in China. China Quarterly, 2020, 1096–117.

Zipursky, B.C., 2018. Access to justice and the legal profession in an era of contracting civil liability. Fordham Law Review, 86, 2107–11.


09-12-2022 — Updated on 28-07-2023

How to Cite

Storgaard, A. (2023) “Access to justice research: On the way to a broader perspective”, Oñati Socio-Legal Series, 13(4), pp. 1209–1238. doi: 10.35295/osls.iisl/0000-0000-0000-1352.